Kazakh ethno genesis for long time was an object of scholarly interest. Thus not surprisingly scientific literature contains a lot of evidences of academic interest to such problems as Kipchaks participation in Kazakh tribes’ formation. This fact is particularly proved by existing scientific conglomerate name for all Kazakh tribes. However, in order to study historical interconnections we need systematization of accumulated knowledge. This work is particularly important because the needed information is sometimes scattered on particles in historical works. Referring to pre-Mongol period, we can make assumption that Argyns as many Turkic tribes were part of the Kipchak tribal confederation. Famous Russian researcher Aristov provided significant data to justify his theory concerning mixed composition of Argyn tribes. Uzbekistan researcher K. Shaniyazov moved further after his colleagues to prove data on Kipchak’s participation in the ethno genesis processes related to the Kazakhs as well as Turkic peoples of Central Asia. History of the VII-VIII century evidences about contacts of Basmil tribe with Qarluqs. Mahmud Kashgar also describes these tribes as Turkmens. According to S. Ahinzhanov, Kipchaks changed their winter migrations places and moved from Zhetysu (Semirechye) to the lower reaches of the Syr Darya, exactly since the migration of Turkic tribes. According to the scholar's assumption, Karluks were locating in the Zhetysu (Semirechye) since the VIII century. Then the contacts between Turk tribes and Kipchaks were inevitable. The Mongol conquest entailed not only the migration of tribes, but also the unification of some tribes to protect their territories and the formation of new tribal alliances and "the emergence of new ethnonyms". In this sense, as noted by the famous ethnographer M.Mukanov, " the carrier of the new ethnonym, which were Argyns in this case, was undoubtedly a new ethnic community and new tribal alliance"... A new tribal alliance was very “numerous”, and very “mighty" and the neighboring tribes might respectively give it name “..argun”.
Argyns and their relations with other tribes
One of the examples of widely spread mutual ties can be long lasting relations of Argyns with some other tribes of Middle Zhuz. Some of the existing data prove as confirmation of these relationship types. This assumption will help to examine a case of Argyn’s stay in larger tribal confederation due to information found in some sources. The first argument to prove this assumption is identical for some Argyn dynasties and Kipchak tribes tamga. For instance, it is known that tamga of the Kipchak tribe is looking as one or two oblique lines (/, //). The other Turkic tribe who’s destiny is close to Kipchak people is Kanzhygaly dynasty of Argyn. The latter had the same // sign. Uzbek researcher K. Shaniyazov suggested detailed explanation of such link existence between different tribes. “Each tribe or ancient dynasty, which belongs to certain tribal confederation, had their tribal or dynastical tamga” [1, 1974]. Apparently, as a basis for common tribal tamga or tamga, was taken tribe that had been dominated in the tribal confederation. Kipchaks belonged to one of such tribes in Dasht-I Kipchak, the lands they had been inhabited from middle Xth - till 30-40 XIII c.c. and from XV till middle XVII c.c.
Therefore, the basis of tamga signs, were Kipchak tamga /. These tribes were part of the Kipchak tribal confederations. Tribes that segregated from Kipchak tribal confederation, or newly appeared tribal alliances usually used to take old tamga as the basic, while making some changes in it’s image. [1, p.152]. Referring to pre-Mongol period, we can make assumption that Argyns as many Turkic tribes were part of the Kipchak tribal confederation. Famous Russian researcher Aristov provided the following data to justify his assumption concerning mixed composition of Argyn tribes. Thus, examining the generic composition of the Naiman, Kirey, Kipchak, he put the following parallels between these tribes and Argyn: each of the abovementioned tribes had in its composition certain clans with the same name. For instance, this ties cab n be observed between such clans as Tertaul of Argyns and Naimans. In this regard, as Aristov pointed out: "clan Tertaul is, as we shall see later, part of the tribe Argyn.
Since Tertaul tamga in Turgay region has two circles (Eki kuz, two eyes) which is tamga of Argyns, thus, with a reasonable safety we may suppose that Tarbagatai Tertouly could be stragglers from the main mass of the Argyn tribe. The latter as a results of certain migration had moved far west when the Tertaul joined them. Captain Andreev in his “Description of the Middle Horde” (1785), mentioned Tertaul clan. He met them on the Chinese borders, “County Akbarak Akbulat Dertaul, who was formerly a sergeant Karabash Imetyubyt, and at his death Zhoshanby; Nadezhda subservient to 600 tents”. Afore mentioned manuscript reports of Semipalatinsk of 1866 year. Tertauls’ considered themselves being distinct clan from Baydjigits . Tertaul’s were divided into sections of Tokan (1.000 kib.), Togus (800 kib.), and Tuzakchi (600 kib.), totally 2400 kib.
A. Ivanovsky, being engaged in anthropological research in Zaisan district and Tarbagatai County, leads the "Tertoul" a fourth branch of the Janybek’s sub-section and sub-division of all four. His proposed information considers Tertouls belonging to Zaisan Naiman, who were considered to have three more divisions of Ak-Naiman, Jal and Mam-bed ("Ethnographic Review", book 26, 1895, p.60)”.[2, p.83-84] N. Aristov compares Kipchaks, Kerey and Argyn tamgas’ with separate subgenus, which allowed the researchers to determine the ethnic closeness of Russian Argyns to the major tribes of the Middle Juz. However, while studying the relationships of the tribes in Middle Juz, Aristov came to the idea that both information are to prove the existence of historical ties with each other and also with other Turkic tribes. After N.Aristov followed with "the information provided (unfortunately is not enough full) the species composition of the Akmola county townships (Akmola region), reported to me by A.I. Troitskiy, was based on the census of 1895. This information shows that Temesh genus Tertoul originally placed in the district Nura had common Argyn tamga (two circles); in the sections of the parish same information should be concerned to Bopy and Kyrgyz. Later, in the Spassky district (Kuvandyk, clan Murat) we could see separating Salia (ref. to the sa-li-ya, elder Nien-ba-en, which is "Gin-shi" in 1160-1190 yr. was seeking for assistance of Jurchen Emperor against Kara-Khitans, together with Bo-gu elders of the clan Kangly...) and bayau (reference to the Bo-ya-wu, from Kangly clan, on biographies, placed in the "Yuan Shi" ...).
Momun clan Kandzhigaly in Korzhunkulskoy Eremenskoy townships were of distinctive special type of face and had tamga of Kipchaks êê. Sections koskeldy, kyldigar, oyum, kama and Dzhapar populated Eremenskoy township.
From Momunsk clan ula-Kipchaks (Ishim town) and boshtun-kipchak (Akmola county) tamga have common Kipchak and clan Kirei (munchaktinsk district branch ak-sary, kur-Sary and kozy, and Kyzyl-Tarask town sections buras, kurman, kur Saray, Biscara, in dzhebik and tolk) preserves common kireyev cross. In cherubay-Nura district (clan of Kuvandyk Kareke) is a branch of the current tok-bura, ak-bura, chuchak, Bargan, kendzhigary and agys-Nurbay. Generally tribe of Argyn justifies the prestige of its name, being really a mixture of Kirey, Naiman, Kipchak, and etc. components. "[2, p.92-93] Presenting the list of the Arab tribes, Aristov continued with Kipchaks, and here he identified some of clans with Argyns. Therefore, Kipchak tribe burzholy - is, according to the researcher, Argyn’s clan Bershs, durut – is clan of A’srgyn tertoul (dyurt-ogul or Ogul according to N.Artistov), andzholy – Argyn’s clan of kandzhigaly. [2, p.93] The researcher of ethnic history from Uzbekistan K. Shaniyazov is quite solider with this opinion. He also provides interesting information concerns to Kipchak’s participation in the ethno genesis processes related to the Kazakhs as well as Turkic peoples of Central Asia. Thus, he calls the tribal federation Sary-Kipchak - alty- ata kanzhygaly ... "tribal unions "yigirma tort ota" Nurata Turkmen divided into four tribes, each of which is called the Alta-Ata: Alta-Ata kanzhigaly".
In XIII-XIV centuries Kanzhygaly genus had already joined Kipchak union. “…The descendants of the Kipchaks lived in the territory of Khorezm. According to K.L. Zadyhina, Khorezm’s Kipchaks united under the name "Segiz Urug Kipchak" (Kipchak’s 8 genera): Kangly - kanzhigaly ... names of a number of tribal divisions of Khorezm’s Kipchaks (kanzhigaly, ...) match with the names of the Kipchaks of Zarafshan Valley, what testifies their common origin. "[1, c.127, 132] Karakalpak Kipchaks also have tribe Alta-Ata, which includes kanzhigaly genus. There is almost no doubt that kanzhygaly’s argyn genus has Kipchak roots. Kanzhygaly branches are also presented almost in all Kipchak tribal groups of Uzbek and Karakalpak people.Based on K.Shaniyazov writings " Zarafshan valley ... at the end of XIX - early XX centuries., were habitad by following groups of Kipchak Uzbeks: Parcha-Kipchak (kanzhigaly), Sara-Kipchak (kanzhigaly), Kipchak-Saray (kanzhigaly) → Turi (Zhasha, Ruda, Kirtmysh). Parcha-Kipchak tribal group settled in the villages ... Karakesek; Saray-Kipchak… in the villages ... Kanzhigaly. "[1, c.123-124, 125] N.Aristov also pointed out:" Kanzhigaly genus is also presented in the Uzbek tribe Kytai-Kipchak of Kytai branch (According to V. Radlov they lived in the Zarafshan valley) " . Settled Turkmens of Uzbekista that live in the north; in the mountainous of Nurota region, which also contain Kanzhygaly genera consider themselves as a part of the Great Horde’s Yusun tribe .... ".[2, c.149, 432, 150] Kanzhygaly branch is also presented at Uzbeks of Khojent county of Jizzakh region and Kurama union. Famous researcher S. Tolstov, was identifying ethnic interdependence of Nuratin Turkmens with Karakalpak and Uzbeks by concentrating his attention on presence of the large kanzhigaly genus in the generic composition of ethnic groups mentioned above. [3 , c.97] Only thing we can add in this case is that it seems that Nuratin Turkmens also have ethnic relationships with Kazakhs.
History of VII-VIII centuries evidences about contacts of the Basmil tribe with Qarluqs. Mahmud Kashgar also describes these tribes as Turkmens. According S.Ahinzhanova, Kipchaks changed their winter migrations places and moved from Zhetysu (Semirechye) to the lower reaches of the Syr Darya, exactly since the migration of Turkic tribes. According to the scientist’s assumption, Karluks were locating in the Zhetysu (Semirechye) since the VIII century. Then the contacts between Turk tribes and Kipchaks were inevitable. In this regard, from V. Bartold’s work we can read the next: "From the writings of the Persian historian Beyhaki we know that long before the writings of Mahmud Kashgar Kipchaks already reached south till the boundaries of Islam and were neighbors of Khorezm. By the words about the movement of Kipchaks to the south, Mahmoud apparently meant some Turkish peoples like Elk Bulak or Bulak, which were captured and taken away by Kipchaks, but then, with God's help, released from this bondage.... "[4, c.98] With the change of the ethnic situation in the XI century steppe that was formerly called "Oguz’s" was renamed to Kipchak’s steppe.
Karluks in early medieval period
According to S.Ahinzhanova, a reflection of the existence of the Karluk ethnic component among Kipchaks is the name of the Polovtsian tribe Ulashevichi, "which is one option of ethnonim Bulak, part of Karluk tribes." [5, c.188] As for the Karluk and Basmils it is known that together with the 9 Hoihu tribes they became "the people of the eleven tribes." Moreover, as it is indicated in Chinese sources, these " extraneous generations - basimi and gelolu" (i.e. Karluks) always walked first in all military campaigns. [6, c.315] This integration had the character of a political union. Thus evidences that the early history of the Argyn tribe was very c related to the Karluk union. The political history of the early middle ages connects the Karluk and Basmils. After the events of the XI century described by medieval authors, some researchers had linked the further fate of the Basmils with the eastern group Shary, which are known to be broken away from the bulk of the tribe, and moved to the east. "According to sources, in XI century, one of the groups of Shary separated from the main group that were migrating to the West of Kipchak tribes and moved to the Talas valley. Then, being feared of the massacre tribe went to the eastern purlieus of the Karakhanid’s state. In this area after inclusion in its ranks tribes of Basmils, Chumulov, Yabagu, tribe moved to the Zhetysu ... In the era of Katakitais and Mongols, Basmils were not representing any political force, as it was before, what mainly indicates about the final loss of their political independence. "[7, c.166] This group of tribes, i.e. East Shary group is mentioned in the Kara-Khitan period (from the writings of N.Aristova), who calls them Sa-li-ya (Mid of. XII.) and informs that they, along with the Kangly tribes begged to be in subjection to the Jurchen. [8, c.288] T.Akerov, researcher of the Kyrgyz early history also believes that the tribes that were mentioned are those who were living in the eastern purlieuses of the Karakhanid khanat, where in the neighborhood with Chigilyams there were located two other regions such as Sahry (Sa-li-ya) and Bugu. The first of these two was founded Kypchaks Shary, which got mingled with Basmil in the XI century. s. "[7, c.130]
The Mongol conquest entailed not only the migration of tribes, but also the unification of some tribes to protect their territories and the formation of new tribal alliances and "the emergence of new ethnonyms." In this sense, as noted by the famous ethnographer M.Mukanov, " the carrier of the new ethnonym, which were Argyns in this case, was undoubtedly a new ethnic community and new tribal alliance. "... A new tribal alliance was very “numerous”, and very “may" and the neighboring tribes might respectively give it name« arqun ». Since the carrier, the object of the ethnonym consisting of various sorts in origin, because of their multiplicity became known in the history of the Kazakh as Argyn tribe. "[9, c.49]
R.G.Kuzeev made interesting assumption about Kipchak Bashkir tribe, in which Jet-uru genus is presented. According to the researcher, the latter " ethnically goes back to the Kazakh’s Junior Horde’s Zhetyru genus." Kuzeev tells a story of P. Nebolsin: "... that the Bashkirs Dzhidiru … descendants of the several f Kyrgyz families from Kypchak genus, a very long time ago had passed from Siberia trough Urals, and entered into kinship with the Bashkirs." [10, c.116] Thus, on this basis it is possible to suppose that the ancestors of the Zhetyru tribal alliance were really in the Kipchak Union XI-XIII centuries and indirect evidence of this is the presences of the same name of genus among the Bashkirs, whose ancestors apparently had moved from the territory of medieval Kazakhstan. "Since the migration in to the Urals and in to the southern Urals, they (Kipchak - HG) were represented not as tribe, but the complex of genera and generic groups, whose ethnic history dates back to medieval Dasht-i-Kipchak ... At the same time Dzhete- Uru genus is historically and ethnically closely connected with the Dasht-i-Kipchak tribes." [10, c.113, 115]
Based on the theoretical derivation of the famous scientist R.Kuzeeva we can see that " multistage and mobile tribal structure of Turcik nomads, based on the principles of continuity and genealogical ties, was a peculir resistance mechanism of transition of many attributes of tribal life (in the first place ethnonyms and tamgas) from the ancient and medieval times. "[10, c.118]. This allows us to draw a conclusion about the possibility of presence of the great number of Turkic tribes as part of Kipchak union, which history from the beginning of the second millennium BC was obviously closely linked to the territory of Western Kazakhstan.
1 Шаниязов К. К этнической истории узбекского народа. – Ташкент: Фан, 1974. – 341 с.
2 Аристов Н.А. Заметки об этническом составе тюркских племен и народностей и сведения об их численности//Живая старина. - СПб.: тип. С.Н. Худекова, 1897.- Вып.3-4. – 182 с.
3 Толстов С.П. Города гузов // Советская этнография. – М., 1947. - №3. – С.93-98.
4 Бартольд В.В. Двенадцать лекций по истории турецких народов Средней Азии // Бартольд В.В. Соч.- М.: Наука, 1968. - Т.5. -759 с.
5 АхинжановС. М.Кыпчакив истории средневекового Казахстана. Под ред. К.М. Байпакова.- Алматы: Гылым, 1995.- 296 с.
6 Бичурин Н.Я. Собрание сведений о народах, обитавших в Средней Азии в древние времена. – Алматы: Жалын, 1998. - Т.1. – 390 с.
7 Акеров Т. Древние кыргызы и Великая степь (по следам древнекыргызских цивилизаций). – Бишкек: Бийиктик, 2005. – 252 с.
8 Аристов Н.А. Усуни и кыргызы или кара-кыргызы. – Бишкек: Илим, 2001. – 576 с.
9 Муканов М. Этнический состав и расселение казахов Среднего жуза.– Алма-Ата: Наука, 1974. – 200 с.
10 Кузеев Р.Г. Происхождение башкирского народа. – М.: Наука, 1974. – 576 с.
List of references
1 Shaniyazov K. K. Ehtnicheskoj istorii uzbekskogo naroda. – Tashkent: Fan, 1974. – 341 s.
2 Aristov N.A. Zametki ob ehtnicheskom sostave tyurkskih plemen i narodnostej i svedeniya ob ih chislennosti // Zhivaya starina. - SPb.: tip. S.N. Hudekova, 1897.- Vyp.3-4. – 182 s.
3 Tolstov S.P. Goroda guzov // Sovetskaya ehtnografiya. – M., 1947. - №3. – S.93-98.
4 Bartold V.V. Dvenadcat' lekcij po istorii tureckih narodov Srednej Azii // Bartold V.V. Soch.- M.: Nauka, 1968. - T.5. -759 s.
5 Ahinzhanov S. M. Kypchaki v istorii srednevekovogo Kazahstana. Pod red. K.M. Bajpakova.- Almaty: Gylym, 1995.- 296 s.
6 Bichurin N.Y. Sobranie svedenij o narodah, obitavshih v Srednej Azii v drevnie vremena. – Almaty: Zhalyn, 1998. - T.1. – 390 s.
7 Akerov T. Drevnie kyrgyzy i Velikaya step (po sledam drevnekyrgyzskih civilizacij). – Bishkek: Bijiktik, 2005. – 252 s.
8 Aristov N.A. Usuni i kyrgyzy ili kara-kyrgyzy. – Bishkek: Ilim, 2001. – 576 s.
9 Mukanov M. EHtnicheskij sostav i rasselenie kazahov Srednego zhuza.– Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1974. – 200 s.
10 Kuzeev R.G. Proiskhozhdenie bashkirskogo naroda. – M.: Nauka, 1974. – 576 s.
т.ғ.д., доцент, әл-Фараби атындағы ҚазҰУ Қазақстан тарихы кафедрасының профессоры, ҚР, Алматы қ-сы
Қыпшақтар және олардың қазақ халқының қалыптасуындағы ролі
Мақалада ертеорта ғасырлық қыпшақ тайпалық одағының этникалық құрамын талдау негізінде, ерте қыпшақтардың қазақ руларының этногенезіне қатыстылығы мәселелері қарастырылады. Автор Н.Аристов, В.Бартольд, С.Ақынжанов, Р.Кузеев және т.б. белгілі ғалымдардың еңбектеріне сүйене отырып, ортағасырлық қазақ жерінде жүрген көші-қон үдерістеріне талдау жасай келе, арғын руының мысалында қыпшақ бірлестігіне көптеген қазақ руларының қыпшақ конфедерациясы құрамына енгенін негіздейді. Қыпшақ тайпалық бірлестігінің құрылуына байланысты көптеген әдебиеттердің болуына қарамастан, таңбалық белгілері, өзбек, қарақалпақ, түркмен, башқұрт халықтарының құрамындағы қыпшақтар туралы дерек мәліметтері, сондай-ақ жоғарыда аталған мәліметтер, басқа да этникалық топтармен тарихи байланысқа түскендігі туралы білімімізді толықтырып және шығу төркіні бір деген қорытынды жасауға әкеледі. Бұл қорытынды түркі көшпелілерінің ру-тайпалық құрылымының жылжымалылығы, сабақтастығы, генеологиялық байланысы туралы теориялық ережегемен негізделеді. Демек, тарихы б.э. екінші мыңжылдығында ортағасырлық қыпшақ одағынан бастау алатын көптеген түркі тайпаларының шығу тегі бүгінгі Қазақстан территориясымен тығыз байланысты.
Кілт сөздер: қыпшақтар, көші-қон үдерісі, таңбалар, түркі тайпалары, этникалық құрамы
д.и.н., доцент, профессор кафедры истории Казахстана
Казахский Национальный Университет им. аль-Фараби, РК, г.Алматы
Кипчаки и их роль в формировании казахских племен
В статье на основе анализа раннесредневекового этнического состава кыпчакского союза племен рассматриваются проблемы участия ранних кыпчаков в этногенезе казахских родов. Опираясь на труды Н.Аристова, В.Бартольда, С.Ахинжанова, Р.Кузеева и других известных ученых, автор на основе анализа миграционных процессов, шедших на территории средневекового Казахстана, обосновывает на примере казахского племени аргын вхождение многих казахских племен в состав кыпчакской конфедерации. Несмотря на имеющуюся обширную литературу по кыпчакскому племенному образованию, анализ тамговых знаков, сведения источников о кыпчаках в составе узбекского, каракалпакского, туркменского, башкирского народов, а также других вышеуказанных данных, позволяют дополнить знания о возможных исторических контактах их с другими этническими группами и прийти к выводу об их возможном общем происхождении. Данное заключение основывается на теоретическом положении о подвижности родоплеменной структуры тюркских кочевников, их преемственности и генеалогической связи. Таким образом, истоки многихтюркских племен, история которых с начала второго тысячелетия н.э. уходит корнями в кыпчакский средневековый союз, тесно связаны с территорией современного Казахстана.
Ключевые слова: кыпчаки, миграционные процессы, тамги, тюркские племена, этнический состав.