Басты бет » Материалдар » UDC 930.2: 94 (574): 394 "MATERIALS ABOUT KYRGYZ LAND USE ..." AS THE SOURCE ON HOUSEHOLD-ECONOMICAL HISTORY OF KAZAKH ECONOMY.

N.A. Tasilova, G. Kozgambaeva

UDC 930.2: 94 (574): 394 "MATERIALS ABOUT KYRGYZ LAND USE ..." AS THE SOURCE ON HOUSEHOLD-ECONOMICAL HISTORY OF KAZAKH ECONOMY.

«edu.e-history.kz» электрондық ғылыми журналы № 4(08)

Аңдатпа:
This article discusses the "Materials on the Kyrgyz land use ..." as a historical source on the history of Kazakhstan the late XIX - early. ХХ century. Documents gathered in the materials are unique in scope of coverage of the totality of the most important facts, events, phenomena in the field of history, ethnography, geography, place names and demography of the Kazakh people. They represent a set of statistical data, consisting of 27 volumes, which is an invaluable resource in the study of the Kazakh people of ethnic history, especially the traditional Kazakh economy. This materials research statistics and research expeditions conducted with the aim of colonizing the territory of Kazakhstan tsarist Russia in the late XIX century. - The beginning of the ХХ century. Despite the fact that these documents were the source for colonial policy, they are also a valuable source of information on the structure of the tribal structure, business, economic, social history and other aspects of the life of the Kazakhs of the period. Keywords: power, source, analysis, method, statistics, ethnicity, structure.
Мазмұны:

  The end of the XIX century. - The beginning of the ХХ century. socio-economic situation in Kazakhstan is characterized by the collapse of the traditional economy of the Kazakhs, the formation of capitalist relations and the deepening of social differentiation. Kazakhstan's economy has developed unevenly.

  Each region in Kazakhstan differed from each other in different climatic, historical conditions, and the level of development of railroads and markets, farms and the location of cultural centers.

  In the wide steppe and mountainous areas, desert and forest areas of Kazakhstan have developed various types of farms. At the end of the nineteenth century. - The beginning of the twentieth century due to different environmental conditions and the level of historical development had its own peculiarities of farming.

  By grouping similar characteristics, three types of farms can be identified: 1) livestock in the conditions of nomadism; 2) livestock in the conditions of semi-nomadic way of life, farming around wintering; 3) livestock and agriculture in the conditions of residence.

  Historian B. Suleimenov, in his work the territory of Kazakhstan in the end of XIX century - beginning of the twentieth century divided into two zones: a) The first - the north, north-west, south-east, in the area the population is mainly engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry; b) The second - the population of most of the central areas of the south and south-west, mainly engaged in animal husbandry [1].

  During this period, the main type of livestock farming was that gripped 64.8% of the population. 26.4% of Kazakhs were engaged in agriculture and a sedentary lifestyle. In the analyzed period, the industry was in its infancy, it has developed a small-scale handicraft production. In general, Kazakhstan in XIX - XX centuries. Agriculture was the edge of the traditional economy and the patriarchal-feudal society.

  On the basis of data stored in the "MKZ" you can obtain valuable information about the traditional animal husbandry, agriculture and crafts of the Kazakhs. The main purpose of the expedition was to determine the required number of Kazakh land to farms, so the first thing the researchers studied the types of households and calculate the necessary amount of land and intventarya. In accordance with the features of the natural environment, the economy of each county were considered separately [2].

  In "MKZ" preserved very valuable information, dismisses the notion that the Kazakhs were not developed agriculture and taught them this lesson Russian peasants. For example, the source dedicated to Chimkent county says that 83.38% of the population was sedentary, and only 16.62% - led a nomadic life. This: "... although the Kirghiz (Kazakhs) in Chimkent district and are considered nomads, they nevertheless provided cropland significantly higher than the average peasant family in the European part of Russia," [3]. The pedigree of delivery table and tribes Akmola county stated that here mainly inhabited by Argyn. Presented branches. From his senior wife: Kuandik, Suyundikov, Begendik, Shegendik from younger wife: Shubyrtpaly (Toktauyl) Zhalykpas, Kambar from slave: Bolatkozha (Karakesek) and godson Karzhas. From the very Kuandyk: birth Esenkart, Altai, Karpykov, Burchi, Temesh. As descendants of the table Esenkarta: Kalkamantsy lived in the Esimskoy parish, Agys in Sherubai-Nura Parish, Altai descendants: Moin-Rahmanul, the descendants of the families of Murat and Sangay - Akbura, Tokbura, Baybura inhabited Akmola, Spassky, Sherubai - Nura parish. Other Argyn inhabited Nura, Zhylandinsky, Monshaktinsky, Korzhynkolsky and Eremensky parish. Kipchaks inhabited Esimsky, Akmola, Zhylandinsky, Monshaktinsky, Kyzyltausky, Kyzyltopyraksky, Nura parish [5].

  In the table, genera and families dedicated to Akmola county are given information about the population of this county: Argyns from Momyna - kind Kanzhygaly, Atygay, Basentin from Meiram, sort Kuandik, Suyundikov, Begendik. Along with them in the county lived Kurei, Waki, Kipchaks, and Kara - Kyrgyz Thuret and Tolengits.

  Relying on the source of the "MKZ", you can determine that Peter and Paul district consisted of 4 major birth Argynov, Repeater, Uakov, Kipchak and from Thuret and tolengitov. The source gives information about the resettlement of tribal kind Kerey "Rhode Kerey submitted to the county four offices, located on the territory of the county in the following sequential order: On the border with native Atygay (Argyn) is located Ker's smallest branch, genus Balta; then the next, on the border Stanovsky and Presnovskoy townships - born Koshuba, then - the most powerful kind of Smail, and finally, who is on a three listed birth distantly related, the Swan, is located in the west (southern part Presnogorkovskaya Parish) between an alien birth Wak, Kipchak and Kandzhigaly ... ".

  From these data it is clear that the county residents were ¾ Argyns and Kurei 1/5 Waki, the remaining farms were 3%. Based on the sources, it can be said: in the east of the Yesil River located Argyns, northeast Waki, in the west - Kurei Waki ​​and lived in the neighborhood, among them Kanzhygaly of Argynov, side by side with Kipchak.

  In fact, the Syrdarya River and the foothills of Karatau Aris abound in irrigation systems that have contributed to the development of agriculture. In this region since ancient times we were engaged in agriculture. Members statistical parties also noted this fact, pointing out that in this case the agricultural region formed 60-100 years ago [4].

 Work "Collection of materials on the history of Turkestan and his conquest" A.G. Serebrennikov is stored in the State Archive of the Republic of Uzbekistan №715 in the fund (Case 72), in 74 volumes. In this work are valuable sources related to the socio-economic, tribal and political history of the Kazakhs Syrdarinskoy area. It is reported about the "occupation of Kazakhs Zhuz farming gardening, harvesting corn, millet and profit when sold, and from ancient times."

   Given that the source refers to the 40-70-th years of the XIX century, it is not necessary to prove that agriculture was developed in Syrdarya region to the resettlement of Russian peasants. The following table gives information on the amount of land allocated for employment in agriculture in Chimkent district.

Table 1 - Agriculture in Chimkent district of Syrdarya region

Areas

The number of farms

acres

in one sector

arable land

Earth where harvested

  arable land

Earth where harvested

I*

N*

I

N

I

N

I

N

Steppe

4909

45478,06

3715,06

7635,26

3170,56

9,26

0,75

1,55

0,64

 Mountain

4012

28331,93

16536,49

4872,65

6696,59

7,06

4,12

1,21

1,66

Total

8921

73810,21

20251,55

12507,91

9867,15

8,27

2,27

1,40

1,10

*I  - irrigated area

*N - no irrigated steppe zone

  Extras shared Chimkent district in the steppe and mountain areas, and isolated by 3 main types of areas for farming:

1. irrigated area

2. Grounds orashaemaya natural reservoirs

3. not irrigated steppe zone.

The average farm county in the steppe areas under agriculture was given - 9.2 acres of land in mountainous areas - 9.3 acres of land. According to the calculations of extras:

  Steppe: 9,2 + 0,48≈9,68 = 9,7 dess. land for agriculture;

  Mountain: 9,3 + 0,23 ≈9,53 = 9,5 dess. land for agriculture;

  Here, 0.48 and 0.23 extra tithes were considered lands under cultivation of alfalfa.

  In Syrdarya region agriculture was developed much better than in the steppe areas. According to the statistical tables in the Shymkent district cultivated wheat summer, autumn wheat, oats, rye, millet, maize, rice, cotton, sesame, melon, lentils, barley, peas.

  According to the source, the Kazakhs of the county, in order to maintain the fertility of the earth in the first year have sown wheat, the second year - oats, on the third - other types of crops. crop rotation with agriculture keeps the land from soil erosion. Kazakhs also treated plow land and harvested with a sickle. In "MKZ", dedicated to the researchers compared Atbasarska county plow with a paw goose and further reported: "... On the upper side was made of wood, the bottom was put on a rounded right angle made by hand" tyz ". Tyz - had in mind the tooth. On "tyz" harnessed a pair of oxen, horses or camels and thereby worked the land to a depth of two spans. "

According to this information, you will notice that the southern regions of Kazakhs were engaged in agriculture, long before the arrival of Russian. Historian N.G.Appolova by examining a variety of materials noted that the Kazakhs has long been engaged in agriculture: "Especially in the south, Kazakhs living along the Syr Darya River are engaged in agriculture since ancient times, their activity in agriculture influenced neighborhood with Khorezm and Karakalpak farmers."

  Also in this vein, the researcher wrote KK Kusayynuly, his opinion is also supported by "MKZ": "The belief that the second half of the nineteenth century, the relocation of Russian peasants in the Kazakh land - impact on employment Kazakh agriculture and changed the quality of farming is considered fiction. Since these opinions were under a colonial intentions of Russia. "

  But despite the fact that our country is independent, so far there are authors who argue that it is taught Russian peasants farming Kazakhs. For example, a researcher DY Friesen notes that in the early twentieth century in Western Kazakhstan and Kazakhs immigrants began more involved in agriculture, and the cause were displaced. If possible, the Russian Empire took away the Kazakhs fertile, rich, rich reservoirs of land in favor of the settlers, and it became a sort of base on the emergence of such opinions.

  Widespread among the Kazakh agriculture, in turn, led to a reduction of such species as the economy, nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralism. As noted at the time A. Bukeikhanov in the Kazakh steppe were not engaged in mass farming because of environmental factors. Agriculture developed as a complement to a nomadic cattle-breeding and it would be wrong to judge how Russian officials about the alleged Kazakh laziness, not taking into account natural conditions.

  T. Sedelnikov being a part of the Turgay Ural Party said in his book: "The Kazakhs Inside you can find various kinds of management from nomadic herding to agriculture hundred percent, even handicrafts, which in turn are closely intertwined."

  The large territory of Kazakhstan since ancient times, inhabiting the Kazakh people, due to the climatic conditions were engaged in nomadic cattle breeding. In all regions of Kazakhstan bred all the main types of animals (horses, cattle, cattle, sheep, camel). The number of animals ranged from the natural conditions of the area. Yet, given the wealth of experience in breeding cattle Kazakh people, knew how to properly use the geographical environment for economic interests. So naturally, even when the nomadic and semi-nomadic cattle there are many regional differences.

  "MKZ" comparing farms engaged in agriculture in Chimkent district and steppe areas results in the table below.

Table 2 - Data on agricultural farms in the early twentieth century

Counties

farms engaged in agriculture%

tithe of arable land on the farm 1

In stock

engaged in agriculture

Chimkent

95,4 %

10,70

11,21

Aktobe

95,4 %

5,83

6,17

Kustanay

77,1 %

2,82

3,66

Atbasar

30,7 %

0,47

1,55

Kokchetav

22,3 %

0,45

2,01

Omsk

3,3 %

0,06

1,84

 The number of livestock in different geographical regions was different. For example, according to H. Artykbaeva territory of Kazakhstan by natural features was divided into 4 zones. [6]

  1 West Kazakhstan, the Caspian basin and the Aral and Mangistau peninsula where there are mostly desert terrain, so in this region is very convenient to breed sheep and camels.

  2 The rich and the aquatic vegetation - North, Central and East Kazakhstan (Sary-Arka), very comfortable areas for breeding horses, sheep and cattle.

  3 The natural conditions of South Kazakhstan suitable for breeding sheep and camels.

  4 Region Semirechye anciently considered a region of sheep breeding, but also in the foothills of Alatau there are all conditions for the breeding of horses and cattle.

  Breeding livestock (mainly sheep, horses, camels and cattle) in the order - due to weather and vegetation of each region.

  In "MKZ" states that in calculating the farms used animal names for their age behalf of (name). This in turn has increased the objectivity of the census. Since registrars, each Kazakh asked the total number of cattle, then slowly redistributes them by age and thus revealed the shortcomings in the amount of cattle that are deliberately hidden masters.

  For example, the source dedicated Ilbishinskomu county for the year 1912 in order to make it clear, the names were given to livestock in the Kazakh and Russian languages. Regarding horses were given: Aygyr - stallion, Kuna - 3 years, tai - 2 years, kulyn - foal Donen - 4 years, Bie - mare. Also, the help of the features of the age horse names were given.

  Large and small cattle in the table given in accordance with their age category: cow, bull, ox, calf, heifer, bull 3 years; Camel - camel, 2 tap-hole, three tap-hole; Sheep, lamb, polugodka, coeval, 2 tap-hole; Goat - goat, kid.

According to the source, dedicated to Chimkent county, local Kazakhs bred horses, cows, camels, sheep, goats and donkeys. Comparison table of livestock in Chimkent district and steppe areas shown in the table below.

 Table 3 - Comparison of % -s indicators of livestock in Chimkent district in the steppe region in the late nineteenth century. - The beginning of the twentieth century. [7]

Counties

% -th indicators of livestock

Horse

Cow

Camel

Sheep and goat

Donkey

Chimkent

28,55

33,82

7,08

30,42

0,13

Atbasar

45,3

12,2

14,3

28,2

-

Omsk

57,0

29,0

0,5

13,5

-

  On the table you can see the following picture: as riding donkeys used only in Chimkent district. Horses percentage more in Omsk and Atbasar districts. Large and small cattle more than bred in the southern regions.

At the end of the expedition FA Shcherbina each average Kazakh family would need 24 (rounded to the horse) livestock units. Basically, according to the information in the tables collected into "MKZ", one pair would need the following number of livestock: in Omsk district - 25, Atbasar district - 25.2, Pavlodar district - 25, Kustanai county - 21.7, Kokchetav County - 19 9, Aktobe county - 18.2.

  The statistical tables at aouls stored in "MKZ", in Aktobe district in Bortinskoy parish in the genus Tama number of cattle in the percentage was as follows: cattle - 43.1%, ovtsy- 32.7%, horses - 18, 1%, goats - 3.4% -2.6% of camels.

  Conducted in Syrdarya region surveyors study statistician P. Skryplev compared with those studies counties F.Scherbina steppe region. The source "MKZ" were taken into account the number of animals and the amount of arable land in two different geographical areas.

  Since ancient times, kind and Kazakh tribes engaged in nomadic cattle breeding, roamed by the established routes to known their territories. The leaders of labor, elders, the elders and nobles of the village - were a kind of managers villages, they have decided to land issues and border migrations determined to avoid any conflicts. Therefore, each household tried to strictly comply with defined borders and make sure that no animal is to suppress the border.

  That is, in general, compared with the number of cattle county Chimkent most prevalent in Omsk and Atbasar districts. On the contrary, especially in the southern regions, is the use of donkeys as transportation rideable. At the same time, the sources can be proved by the fact that in Chimkent district and engaged in farming and nomadic herding.

References

1.  Sulejmenov B. Agrarnyj vopros v Kazahstane v poslednej treti ХІХ–  nachale ХХ vv. (1867– 1907 gg.).  – Alma–Ata: AN KazSSR, 1963. – S. 411.

2.  Materialy po kirgizskomu zemlepol'zovaniju v Syrdar'inskoj oblasti. –  Chimkentskij uezd. –  T. 1. –  Tashkent., 1908. –  S. 643.

3.  MKZ. – T. 2. – Vyp. 1. –  Chimkentskij uezd. –  Tashkent., 1910. – S. 277.

4.  Materialy po kirgizskomu zemlepol'zovaniju rajona reki Chu i nizov'ev reki Talasa Chernjaevskogo i Aulieatinskogo uezdov Syr–Dar'inskoj oblasti. – Tashkent: Tipo– Litografija V.M. Il'ina, 1915. – m– f.

5.  MKZ. –  T.II. –  Akmolinskaja oblast'. Atbasarskij uezd. –  Voronezh, 1902. – S. 534.

6.  Argynbaev H. Kazaktyn mal sharuashylygy zhajyndagy etnografijalyk ocherk. – Almaty: Gylym, 1969. – 172 b.

  7.  MKZ. –  T.XI. –  Akmolinskaja oblast'. Omskij uezd. –  Omsk, 1902.  – S. 274.

Тасилова Н., Қозғамбаева Г.

«Қырғыздардың (Қазақтардың) жер пайдалану материалдары...» - қазақ шаруашылығының  шаруашылық-экономикалық тарихының дерек көзі

Бұл мақалада «Қырғыздардың (Қазақтардың) жер пайдалану материалдары...» Қазақстан тарихының маңызды дерек көзі ретінде қарастырылады.

Қырғыздардың (Қазақтардың) жер пайдалану материалдары...» статистикалық мәліметтерден жинақталған 27 томнан тұрады, ол қазақ халқының этникалық тарихын, дәстүрлі шаруашылығының ерекшеліктерін зерттеудің маңызды дерек көзі болып табылады. Деректерде жинақталған ақпараттар уникалды. Ең алдымен маңызды фактілердің, тарих, этнография, география, топонимика, демография және т.б. мәселелерге қатысты құнды мәліметтердің бір деректе шоғырлануы. Сондықтан да бүгінгі таңда бұл деректі деректанулық талдау мәселесіне деген қызығушылық артып отыр. 

Онда қазақ тарихының маңызды дерек көзі болып табылатын «Қырғыздардың жер пайдалану материалдарын...» зерттеу мен талдау методикалары мен тәсілдері көрсетіліп, деректану ғылымының талаптарына сай зерттеу мен сыннын өткізудің, сыныптау мен талдаудың әдістері мен оны нақты тарихи зерттеулерде пайдалану тәсілдері ұсынылған. Сонымен қатар статистикалық зерттеулерді ұйымдастырған, деректі құрастырған авторлар, олардың көзқарастары талданған.

Түйін сөздер: дерек, деректану, талдау, әдіс, статистика, этнос, құрылым. 

Тасилова Н., Козгамбаева Г.

«Материалы по киргизскому землепользованию...» как источник по хозяйственно-экономической истории казахских хозяйств.

В настоящей статье рассматриваются «Материалы по киргизскому землепользованию...» как исторический источник по истории Казахстана конца ХІХ - нач. ХХ века. Документы, собранные в материалах уникальны  по масштабу охвата всей совокупности важнейших фактов, событий, явлений в области истории, этнографии, географии, топонимики и демографии казахского народа. Они представляют собой свод статистических материалов, состоящий из 27-ми томов, который является бесценным источником в исследовании этнической истории казахского народа, особенности казахского традиционного хозяйства.

Это материалы исследований статистических и  исследовательских экспедиций проведенных с целью колонизации территории Казахстана царской Россией в конце ХІХ в. – начале ХХ в. Несмотря на то что эти документы были источником для колониальной политики, они также являются ценным источником по структуре родо-племенного состава, хозяйственной, экономической, социальной истории и других  аспектов жизни казахов того периода.

Ключевые слова: источник, источниковедение, анализ, метод, статистика, этнос, структура.



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